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Article

Ten Years of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) in Hawaiian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), the Dominant DWV-A Variant Is Potentially Being Replaced by Variants with a DWV-B Coding Sequence

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School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WX, UK
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Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
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School of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK
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College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 3050 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Environmental Biology (Virology), School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adly Abd-Alla, Drion G. Boucias and Vera I. D. Ros
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060969
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Mass-Reared Invertebrates)
The combination of Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor is arguably one of the greatest threats currently facing western honey bees, Apis mellifera. Varroa’s association with DWV has decreased viral diversity and increased loads of DWV within honey bee populations. Nowhere has this been better studied than in Hawaii, where the arrival of Varroa progressively led to the dominance of the single master variant (DWV-A) on both mite-infested Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Big Island. Now, exactly 10 years following the original study, we find that the DWV population has changed once again, with variants containing the RdRp coding sequence pertaining to the master variant B beginning to co-dominate alongside variants with the DWV-A RdRp sequence on the mite-infested islands of Oahu and Big Island. In speculation, based on other studies, it appears this could represent a stage in the journey towards the complete dominance of DWV-B, a variant that appears better adapted to be transmitted within honey bee colonies. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey bee; deformed wing virus; Varroa honey bee; deformed wing virus; Varroa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grindrod, I.; Kevill, J.L.; Villalobos, E.M.; Schroeder, D.C.; Martin, S.J. Ten Years of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) in Hawaiian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), the Dominant DWV-A Variant Is Potentially Being Replaced by Variants with a DWV-B Coding Sequence. Viruses 2021, 13, 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060969

AMA Style

Grindrod I, Kevill JL, Villalobos EM, Schroeder DC, Martin SJ. Ten Years of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) in Hawaiian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), the Dominant DWV-A Variant Is Potentially Being Replaced by Variants with a DWV-B Coding Sequence. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grindrod, Isobel, Jessica L. Kevill, Ethel M. Villalobos, Declan C. Schroeder, and Stephen J. Martin 2021. "Ten Years of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) in Hawaiian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), the Dominant DWV-A Variant Is Potentially Being Replaced by Variants with a DWV-B Coding Sequence" Viruses 13, no. 6: 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060969

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