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Article

Characterization and Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Sarcoidosis

1
Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Hospital CIMA-Sanitas, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínico, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital La Paz, 28046 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, 45004 Toledo, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Althaia, Xarxa Assistencial de Manresa, 08243 Manresa, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), 33011 Oviedo, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Infanta Leonor, 28031 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Anesthesiology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Alvaro Cunqueiro, 36213 Vigo, Spain
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Department of Autoimmune Diseases, ICMiD, Hospital Clinic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
11
Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The members of the SarcoGEAS-SEMI are listed in the Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Luis Martinez-Sobrido
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061000
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19—Advances in Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects)
To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with sarcoidosis from a large multicenter cohort from Southern Europe and to identify the risk factors associated with a more complicated infection. We searched for patients with sarcoidosis presenting with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control guidelines) among those included in the SarcoGEAS Registry, a nationwide, multicenter registry of patients fulfilling the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders 1999 classification criteria for sarcoidosis. A 2:1 age-sex-matched subset of patients with sarcoidosis without SARS-CoV-2 infection was selected as control population. Forty-five patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified (28 women, mean age 55 years). Thirty-six patients presented a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and 14 were hospitalized (12 required supplemental oxygen, 2 intensive care unit admission and 1 mechanical ventilation). Four patients died due to progressive respiratory failure. Patients who required hospital admission had an older mean age (64.9 vs. 51.0 years, p = 0.006), a higher frequency of baseline comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (64% vs. 23%, p = 0.016), diabetes mellitus (43% vs. 13%, p = 0.049) and chronic liver/kidney diseases (36% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) and presented more frequently fever (79% vs. 35%, p = 0.011) and dyspnea (50% vs. 3%, p = 0.001) in comparison with patients managed at home. Age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis identified the age at diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2 infection as the only independent variable associated with hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio 1.18, 95% conficence interval 1.04–1.35). A baseline moderate/severe pulmonary impairment in function tests was associated with a higher rate of hospitalization but the difference was not statistically significant (50% vs. 23%, p = 0.219). A close monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly patients with sarcoidosis, especially in those with baseline cardiopulmonary diseases and chronic liver or renal failure, is recommended. The low frequency of severe pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis from Southern Europe may explain the weak prognostic role of baseline lung impairment in our study, in contrast to studies from other geographical areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcoidosis; COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; comorbidities; survival; hospital admission sarcoidosis; COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; comorbidities; survival; hospital admission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brito-Zerón, P.; Gracia-Tello, B.; Robles, A.; Alguacil, A.; Bonet, M.; De-Escalante, B.; Noblejas-Mosso, A.; Gómez-de-la-Torre, R.; Akasbi, M.; Pérez-de-Lis, M.; Pérez-Alvarez, R.; Ramos-Casals, M.; on behalf of the SarcoGEAS-SEMI Registry. Characterization and Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Sarcoidosis. Viruses 2021, 13, 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061000

AMA Style

Brito-Zerón P, Gracia-Tello B, Robles A, Alguacil A, Bonet M, De-Escalante B, Noblejas-Mosso A, Gómez-de-la-Torre R, Akasbi M, Pérez-de-Lis M, Pérez-Alvarez R, Ramos-Casals M, on behalf of the SarcoGEAS-SEMI Registry. Characterization and Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Sarcoidosis. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brito-Zerón, P., B. Gracia-Tello, A. Robles, A. Alguacil, M. Bonet, B. De-Escalante, A. Noblejas-Mosso, R. Gómez-de-la-Torre, M. Akasbi, M. Pérez-de-Lis, R. Pérez-Alvarez, M. Ramos-Casals, and on behalf of the SarcoGEAS-SEMI Registry. 2021. "Characterization and Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Sarcoidosis" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061000

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