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Open AccessArticle

Targeted Profiling of Immunological Genes during Norovirus Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Digestive Disease, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Research Office, Food and Health Bureau, Hong Kong, China.
Academic Editor: Margaret Scull
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020155
Received: 15 November 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of 3D Tissue Culture Systems in Virology)
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The pathogenesis of norovirus and the induced immune response remain poorly understood due to the lack of a robust virus culture system. The monolayers of two secretor-positive Chinese human intestinal enteroid (HIE) lines were challenged with two norovirus pandemic GII.4 Sydney strains. Norovirus RNA replication in supernatants and cell lysates were quantified by RT-qPCR. RNA expression levels of immune-related genes were profiled using PCR arrays. The secreted protein levels of shortlisted upregulated genes were measured in supernatants using analyte-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Productive norovirus replications were achieved in three (75%) out of four inoculations. The two most upregulated immune-related genes were CXCL10 (93-folds) and IFI44L (580-folds). Gene expressions of CXCL10 and IFI44L were positively correlated with the level of norovirus RNA replication (CXCL10: Spearman’s r = 0.779, p < 0.05; IFI44L: r = 0.881, p < 0.01). The higher level of secreted CXCL10 and IFI44L proteins confirmed their elevated gene expression. The two genes have been reported to be upregulated in norovirus volunteer challenges and natural human infections by other viruses. Our data suggested that HIE could mimic the innate immune response elicited in natural norovirus infection and, therefore, could serve as an experimental model for future virus-host interaction and antiviral studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: human norovirus; human intestinal enteroids; innate immune response; virus–host interaction human norovirus; human intestinal enteroids; innate immune response; virus–host interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, J.C.M.; Mohammad, K.N.; Zhang, L.-Y.; Wong, S.H.; Chan, M.C.-W. Targeted Profiling of Immunological Genes during Norovirus Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids. Viruses 2021, 13, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020155

AMA Style

Chan JCM, Mohammad KN, Zhang L-Y, Wong SH, Chan MC-W. Targeted Profiling of Immunological Genes during Norovirus Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chan, Jenny C.M.; Mohammad, Kirran N.; Zhang, Lin-Yao; Wong, Sunny H.; Chan, Martin C.-W. 2021. "Targeted Profiling of Immunological Genes during Norovirus Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids" Viruses 13, no. 2: 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020155

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