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Review

Embryonic Origins of Virus-Induced Hearing Loss: Overview of Molecular Etiology

1
School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
3
Manitoba Centre for Proteomics and Systems Biology, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P4, Canada
4
Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ian N. Hampson
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010071
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Hearing loss, one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions, affects around half a billion people worldwide, including 34 million children. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of disabling hearing loss will increase to over 900 million people by 2050. Many cases of congenital hearing loss are triggered by viral infections during different stages of pregnancy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which viruses induce hearing loss are not sufficiently explored, especially cases that are of embryonic origins. The present review first describes the cellular and molecular characteristics of the auditory system development at early stages of embryogenesis. These developmental hallmarks, which initiate upon axial specification of the otic placode as the primary root of the inner ear morphogenesis, involve the stage-specific regulation of several molecules and pathways, such as retinoic acid signaling, Sonic hedgehog, and Wnt. Different RNA and DNA viruses contributing to congenital and acquired hearing loss are then discussed in terms of their potential effects on the expression of molecules that control the formation of the auditory and vestibular compartments following otic vesicle differentiation. Among these viruses, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus appear to have the most effect upon initial molecular determinants of inner ear development. Moreover, of the molecules governing the inner ear development at initial stages, SOX2, FGFR3, and CDKN1B are more affected by viruses causing either congenital or acquired hearing loss. Abnormalities in the function or expression of these molecules influence processes like cochlear development and production of inner ear hair and supporting cells. Nevertheless, because most of such virus–host interactions were studied in unrelated tissues, further validations are needed to confirm whether these viruses can mediate the same effects in physiologically relevant models simulating otic vesicle specification and growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: hearing loss; viruses; embryogenesis; inner ear formation; auditory system development hearing loss; viruses; embryogenesis; inner ear formation; auditory system development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karimi-Boroujeni, M.; Zahedi-Amiri, A.; Coombs, K.M. Embryonic Origins of Virus-Induced Hearing Loss: Overview of Molecular Etiology. Viruses 2021, 13, 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010071

AMA Style

Karimi-Boroujeni M, Zahedi-Amiri A, Coombs KM. Embryonic Origins of Virus-Induced Hearing Loss: Overview of Molecular Etiology. Viruses. 2021; 13(1):71. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010071

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karimi-Boroujeni, Maryam, Ali Zahedi-Amiri, and Kevin M. Coombs 2021. "Embryonic Origins of Virus-Induced Hearing Loss: Overview of Molecular Etiology" Viruses 13, no. 1: 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010071

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