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Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of a Rabies Virus Strain Isolated from a Dog in Tokyo, Japan in the 1940s
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Defining New Pathways to Manage the Ongoing Emergence of Bat Rabies in Latin America

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Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago 8370146, Chile
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Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
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Centro de Investigación para la Sustentabilidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, 8370146 Santiago, Chile
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Association for the Conservation and Development of Natural Resources ILLARIY, Lima 051, Peru
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Departamento de Pediatría, Obstetricia y Ginecología y de Medicina Preventiva, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
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Facultad de Medicina San Fernando, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 15001, Peru
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Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho Campus de Botucatu, Botucatu 18618-970, Brazil
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Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades y Una Salud, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City 04510, Mexico
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División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Villahermosa 86150, Mexico
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Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
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Centro de Controle de Zoonoses da Prefeitura do Município de São Paulo, São Paulo 02031-020, Brazil
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Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciências e Tecnología do Pará, Tucuruí 68-455-695, Brazil
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Pan-American Center for Foot-and-mouth Disease and Veterinary Public Health—Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PANAFTOSA—PAHO/WHO), Rio de Janeiro 25045-002, Brazil
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OIE-World Organisation for Animal Health, 75017 Paris, France
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Departamento de Mastozoología, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 15072, Peru
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Programa de Conservación de Murciélagos de Perú, Lima 15072, Peru
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Director Regional de la Dirección Regional Sectorial Agraria, Gobierno Regional de Apurímac, Abancay 03001, Peru
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MRC–University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091002
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lyssaviruses and Other Bat Rhabdoviruses)
Rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) has been known since the early 1900s but continues to expand geographically and in the range of species and environments affected. In this review, we present current knowledge of the epidemiology and management of rabies in D. rotundus and argue that it can be reasonably considered an emerging public health threat. We identify knowledge gaps related to the landscape determinants of the bat reservoir, reduction in bites on humans and livestock, and social barriers to prevention. We discuss how new technologies including autonomously-spreading vaccines and reproductive suppressants targeting bats might manage both rabies and undesirable growth of D. rotundus populations. Finally, we highlight widespread under-reporting of human and animal mortality and the scarcity of studies that quantify the efficacy of control measures such as bat culling. Collaborations between researchers and managers will be crucial to implement the next generation of rabies management in Latin America. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies lyssavirus; zoonotic disease; control measures; public health; cross-species transmission rabies lyssavirus; zoonotic disease; control measures; public health; cross-species transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benavides, J.A.; Valderrama, W.; Recuenco, S.; Uieda, W.; Suzán, G.; Avila-Flores, R.; Velasco-Villa, A.; Almeida, M.; Andrade, F.A.; Molina-Flores, B.; Vigilato, M.A.N.; Pompei, J.C.A.; Tizzani, P.; Carrera, J.E.; Ibanez, D.; Streicker, D.G. Defining New Pathways to Manage the Ongoing Emergence of Bat Rabies in Latin America. Viruses 2020, 12, 1002.

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