Next Article in Journal
Of Keeping and Tipping the Balance: Host Regulation and Viral Modulation of IRF3-Dependent IFNB1 Expression
Next Article in Special Issue
Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Pre-S Mutants in Plasma Predicts Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence
Previous Article in Journal
In Silico Prediction of Human Leukocytes Antigen (HLA) Class II Binding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Peptides in Botswana
Open AccessArticle

Phylogenetic and Timescale Analysis of Barmah Forest Virus as Inferred from Genome Sequence Analysis

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
PathWest Laboratory Medicine Western Australia, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
Environmental Health Hazards, Department of Health, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6102, Australia
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4067, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 732;
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 July 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Molecular Epidemiology)
Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a medically important mosquito-borne alphavirus endemic to Australia. Symptomatic disease can be a major cause of morbidity, associated with fever, rash, and debilitating arthralgia. BFV disease is similar to that caused by Ross River virus (RRV), the other major Australian alphavirus. Currently, just four BFV whole-genome sequences are available with no genome-scale phylogeny in existence to robustly characterise genetic diversity. Thirty novel genome sequences were derived for this study, for a final 34-taxon dataset sampled over a 44 year period. Three distinct BFV genotypes were characterised (G1–3) that have circulated in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Evidence of spatio-temporal co-circulation of G2 and G3 within regions of Australia was noted, including in the South West region of Western Australia (WA) during the first reported disease outbreaks in the state’s history. Compared with RRV, the BFV population appeared more stable with less frequent emergence of novel lineages. Preliminary in vitro assessment of RRV and BFV replication kinetics found that RRV replicates at a significantly faster rate and to a higher, more persistent titre compared with BFV, perhaps indicating mosquitoes may be infectious with RRV for longer than with BFV. This investigation resolved a greater diversity of BFV, and a greater understanding of the evolutionary dynamics and history was attained. View Full-Text
Keywords: Australia; alphavirus; arbovirus; evolutionary analysis; phylogeny Australia; alphavirus; arbovirus; evolutionary analysis; phylogeny
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Michie, A.; Ernst, T.; Chua, I.-L.J.; Lindsay, M.D.A.; Neville, P.J.; Nicholson, J.; Jardine, A.; Mackenzie, J.S.; Smith, D.W.; Imrie, A. Phylogenetic and Timescale Analysis of Barmah Forest Virus as Inferred from Genome Sequence Analysis. Viruses 2020, 12, 732.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop