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Open AccessArticle

Saxifraga spinulosa-Derived Components Rapidly Inactivate Multiple Viruses Including SARS-CoV-2

1
Research Center for Global Agromedicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-1-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
4
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
5
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, P.O.B-617/46A, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia
6
Mongolian University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 18130, Mongolia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070699
Received: 23 May 2020 / Revised: 21 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription–PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.
Keywords: medicinal herb; pandemic; pyrogallol-enriched fraction; SARS-CoV-2; Saxifraga spinulosa; virus disinfectant medicinal herb; pandemic; pyrogallol-enriched fraction; SARS-CoV-2; Saxifraga spinulosa; virus disinfectant
MDPI and ACS Style

Takeda, Y.; Murata, T.; Jamsransuren, D.; Suganuma, K.; Kazami, Y.; Batkhuu, J.; Badral, D.; Ogawa, H. Saxifraga spinulosa-Derived Components Rapidly Inactivate Multiple Viruses Including SARS-CoV-2. Viruses 2020, 12, 699.

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