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Open AccessArticle

Unexpected Genetic Diversity of Two Novel Swine MRVs in Italy

1
Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, Department of Animal Health, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), Viale dell’Università 10, Legnaro, 35020 Padua, Italy
2
OIE Collaborating Centre for Diseases at the Animal/Human Interface, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), Viale dell’Università 10, Legnaro, 35020 Padua, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equally contributed.
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050574
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reoviruses)
Mammalian Orthoreoviruses (MRV) are segmented dsRNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. MRVs infect mammals and cause asymptomatic respiratory, gastro-enteric and, rarely, encephalic infections. MRVs are divided into at least three serotypes: MRV1, MRV2 and MRV3. In Europe, swine MRV (swMRV) was first isolated in Austria in 1998 and subsequently reported more than fifteen years later in Italy. In the present study, we characterized two novel reassortant swMRVs identified in one same Italian farm over two years. The two viruses shared the same genetic backbone but showed evidence of reassortment in the S1, S4, M2 segments and were therefore classified into two serotypes: MRV3 in 2016 and MRV2 in 2018. A genetic relation to pig, bat and human MRVs and other unknown sources was identified. A considerable genetic diversity was observed in the Italian MRV3 and MRV2 compared to other available swMRVs. The S1 protein presented unique amino acid signatures in both swMRVs, with unexpected frequencies for MRV2. The remaining genes formed distinct and novel genetic groups that revealed a geographically related evolution of swMRVs in Italy. This is the first report of the complete molecular characterization of novel reassortant swMRVs in Italy and Europe, which suggests a greater genetic diversity of swMRVs never identified before. View Full-Text
Keywords: MRV2; MRV3; swine MRVs; reassortment; novel MRV2 group MRV2; MRV3; swine MRVs; reassortment; novel MRV2 group
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Cavicchio, L.; Tassoni, L.; Zamperin, G.; Campalto, M.; Carrino, M.; Leopardi, S.; De Benedictis, P.; Beato, M.S. Unexpected Genetic Diversity of Two Novel Swine MRVs in Italy. Viruses 2020, 12, 574.

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