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Article

Structural and Functional Characterization of the Secondary Mutation N126K Selected by Various HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors

1
NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Center for AIDS Research, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
2
Department of Lab Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030326
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Viral Fusion and Applications in Antivirals)
Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region of HIV-1 gp41 is potent viral membrane fusion inhibitors, such as the first clinically approved peptide drug T20 and a group of newly-designed peptides. The resistance profiles of various HIV-1 fusion inhibitors were previously characterized, and the secondary mutation N126K in the gp41 CHR was routinely identified during the in vitro and in vivo selections. In this study, the functional and structural relevance of the N126K mutation has been characterized from multiple angles. First, we show that a single N126K mutation across several HIV-1 isolates conferred mild to moderate cross-resistances. Second, the N126K mutation exerted different effects on Env-mediated HIV-1 entry and cell-cell fusion. Third, the N126K mutation did not interfere with the expression and processing of viral Env glycoproteins, but it disrupted the Asn126-based glycosylation site in gp41. Fourth, the N126K mutation was verified to enhance the thermal stability of 6-HB conformation. Fifth, we determined the crystal structure of a 6-HB bearing the N126K mutation, which revealed the interhelical and intrahelical interactions underlying the increased thermostability. Therefore, our data provide new information to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 gp41-mediated cell fusion and its resistance mode to viral fusion inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; gp41; fusion inhibitor; resistance; secondary mutation HIV-1; gp41; fusion inhibitor; resistance; secondary mutation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, D.; Su, Y.; Ding, X.; Zhu, Y.; Qin, B.; Chong, H.; Cui, S.; He, Y. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Secondary Mutation N126K Selected by Various HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors. Viruses 2020, 12, 326. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030326

AMA Style

Yu D, Su Y, Ding X, Zhu Y, Qin B, Chong H, Cui S, He Y. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Secondary Mutation N126K Selected by Various HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors. Viruses. 2020; 12(3):326. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Danwei; Su, Yang; Ding, Xiaohui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Qin, Bo; Chong, Huihui; Cui, Sheng; He, Yuxian. 2020. "Structural and Functional Characterization of the Secondary Mutation N126K Selected by Various HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors" Viruses 12, no. 3: 326. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030326

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