Next Article in Journal
Peste des Petits Ruminants at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Northern Albertine Rift and Nile Basin, East Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Infection of Mid-Gestation Pregnant Female and Intact Male Sheep with Zika Virus
 
 
Article

A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Microbiology, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030292
Received: 22 December 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 4 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Staphylococcal bacteriophages of the Kayvirus genus are candidates for therapeutic applications. One of their proteins, Tgl, is slightly similar to two staphylococcal virulence factors, secreted autolysins of lytic transglycosylase motifs IsaA and SceD. We show that Tgl is a lytic enzyme secreted by the bacterial transport system and localizes to cell peripheries like IsaA and SceD. It causes lysis of E. coli cells expressing the cloned tgl gene, but could be overproduced when depleted of signal peptide. S. aureus cells producing Tgl lysed in the presence of nisin, which mimics the action of phage holin. In vitro, Tgl protein was able to destroy S. aureus cell walls. The production of Tgl decreased S. aureus tolerance to vancomycin, unlike the production of SceD, which is associated with decreased sensitivity to vancomycin. In the genomes of kayviruses, the tgl gene is located a few genes away from the lysK gene, encoding the major endolysin. While lysK is a late phage gene, tgl can be transcribed by a host RNA polymerase, like phage early genes. Taken together, our data indicate that tgl belongs to the kayvirus lytic module and encodes an additional endolysin that can act in concert with LysK in cell lysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage; Kayvirus; endolysin; virulence determinants; vancomycin Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage; Kayvirus; endolysin; virulence determinants; vancomycin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Głowacka-Rutkowska, A.; Ulatowska, M.; Empel, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Boreczek, J.; Łobocka, M. A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme. Viruses 2020, 12, 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030292

AMA Style

Głowacka-Rutkowska A, Ulatowska M, Empel J, Kowalczyk M, Boreczek J, Łobocka M. A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme. Viruses. 2020; 12(3):292. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030292

Chicago/Turabian Style

Głowacka-Rutkowska, Aleksandra, Magdalena Ulatowska, Joanna Empel, Magdalena Kowalczyk, Jakub Boreczek, and Małgorzata Łobocka. 2020. "A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme" Viruses 12, no. 3: 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030292

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop