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Article

The Cell Tropism of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus for Airway Epithelial Cells Is Determined by the Expression of Porcine Aminopeptidase N

1
Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany
2
Virology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10100, Thailand
3
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany
4
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10100, Thailand
5
College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150000, China
6
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111211
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 20 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Receptors and Viral Tropism)
Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) infects the epithelial cells in the respiratory tract of pigs, causing a mild respiratory disease. We applied air–liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine airway cells to mimic the respiratory tract epithelium in vitro and use it for analyzing the infection by PRCoV. As reported for most coronaviruses, virus entry and virus release occurred mainly via the apical membrane domain. A novel finding was that PRCoV preferentially targets non-ciliated and among them the non-mucus-producing cells. Aminopeptidase N (APN), the cellular receptor for PRCoV was also more abundantly expressed on this type of cell suggesting that APN is a determinant of the cell tropism. Interestingly, differentiation-dependent differences were found both in the expression of pAPN and the susceptibility to PRCoV infection. Cells in an early differentiation stage express higher levels of pAPN and are more susceptible to infection by PRCoV than are well-differentiated cells. A difference in the susceptibility to infection was also detected when tracheal and bronchial cells were compared. The increased susceptibility to infection of bronchial epithelial cells was, however, not due to an increased abundance of APN on the cell surface. Our data reveal a complex pattern of infection in porcine differentiated airway epithelial cells that could not be elucidated with immortalized cell lines. The results are expected to have relevance also for the analysis of other respiratory viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine respiratory coronavirus; porcine aminopeptidase N; air–liquid interface culture; tropism porcine respiratory coronavirus; porcine aminopeptidase N; air–liquid interface culture; tropism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, J.-Y.; Punyadarsaniya, D.; Shin, D.-L.; Pavasutthipaisit, S.; Beineke, A.; Li, G.; Wu, N.-H.; Herrler, G. The Cell Tropism of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus for Airway Epithelial Cells Is Determined by the Expression of Porcine Aminopeptidase N. Viruses 2020, 12, 1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111211

AMA Style

Peng J-Y, Punyadarsaniya D, Shin D-L, Pavasutthipaisit S, Beineke A, Li G, Wu N-H, Herrler G. The Cell Tropism of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus for Airway Epithelial Cells Is Determined by the Expression of Porcine Aminopeptidase N. Viruses. 2020; 12(11):1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peng, Ju-Yi, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Dai-Lun Shin, Suvarin Pavasutthipaisit, Andreas Beineke, Guangxing Li, Nai-Huei Wu, and Georg Herrler. 2020. "The Cell Tropism of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus for Airway Epithelial Cells Is Determined by the Expression of Porcine Aminopeptidase N" Viruses 12, no. 11: 1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111211

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