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Open AccessArticle

Zinc and Copper Ions Differentially Regulate Prion-Like Phase Separation Dynamics of Pan-Virus Nucleocapsid Biomolecular Condensates

by Anne Monette 1,* and Andrew J. Mouland 1,2,*
1
Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
2
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101179
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 18 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 11th International Retroviral Nucleocapsid and Assembly Symposium)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is a rapidly growing research focus due to numerous demonstrations that many cellular proteins phase-separate to form biomolecular condensates (BMCs) that nucleate membraneless organelles (MLOs). A growing repertoire of mechanisms supporting BMC formation, composition, dynamics, and functions are becoming elucidated. BMCs are now appreciated as required for several steps of gene regulation, while their deregulation promotes pathological aggregates, such as stress granules (SGs) and insoluble irreversible plaques that are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment of BMC-related diseases will greatly benefit from identification of therapeutics preventing pathological aggregates while sparing BMCs required for cellular functions. Numerous viruses that block SG assembly also utilize or engineer BMCs for their replication. While BMC formation first depends on prion-like disordered protein domains (PrLDs), metal ion-controlled RNA-binding domains (RBDs) also orchestrate their formation. Virus replication and viral genomic RNA (vRNA) packaging dynamics involving nucleocapsid (NC) proteins and their orthologs rely on Zinc (Zn) availability, while virus morphology and infectivity are negatively influenced by excess Copper (Cu). While virus infections modify physiological metal homeostasis towards an increased copper to zinc ratio (Cu/Zn), how and why they do this remains elusive. Following our recent finding that pan-retroviruses employ Zn for NC-mediated LLPS for virus assembly, we present a pan-virus bioinformatics and literature meta-analysis study identifying metal-based mechanisms linking virus-induced BMCs to neurodegenerative disease processes. We discover that conserved degree and placement of PrLDs juxtaposing metal-regulated RBDs are associated with disease-causing prion-like proteins and are common features of viral proteins responsible for virus capsid assembly and structure. Virus infections both modulate gene expression of metalloproteins and interfere with metal homeostasis, representing an additional virus strategy impeding physiological and cellular antiviral responses. Our analyses reveal that metal-coordinated virus NC protein PrLDs initiate LLPS that nucleate pan-virus assembly and contribute to their persistence as cell-free infectious aerosol droplets. Virus aerosol droplets and insoluble neurological disease aggregates should be eliminated by physiological or environmental metals that outcompete PrLD-bound metals. While environmental metals can control virus spreading via aerosol droplets, therapeutic interference with metals or metalloproteins represent additional attractive avenues against pan-virus infection and virus-exacerbated neurological diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: nucleocapsid protein; pan-virus; retrovirus; viral genomic RNA; liquid-liquid phase separation; biomolecular condensate; membraneless organelle; neurodegenerative disease; prion-like disordered protein domain; zinc finger motif; RNA-binding domain; zinc; copper nucleocapsid protein; pan-virus; retrovirus; viral genomic RNA; liquid-liquid phase separation; biomolecular condensate; membraneless organelle; neurodegenerative disease; prion-like disordered protein domain; zinc finger motif; RNA-binding domain; zinc; copper
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Monette, A.; Mouland, A.J. Zinc and Copper Ions Differentially Regulate Prion-Like Phase Separation Dynamics of Pan-Virus Nucleocapsid Biomolecular Condensates. Viruses 2020, 12, 1179.

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