Next Article in Journal
Delayed by Design: Role of Suboptimal Signal Peptidase Processing of Viral Structural Protein Precursors in Flaviviridae Virus Assembly
Next Article in Special Issue
Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Rec Forms a Regulatory Loop with MITF that Opposes the Progression of Melanoma to an Invasive Stage
Previous Article in Journal
HIF-1α Modulates Core Metabolism and Virus Replication in Primary Airway Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trim24 and Trim33 Play a Role in Epigenetic Silencing of Retroviruses in Embryonic Stem Cells
Review

Host Gene Regulation by Transposable Elements: The New, the Old and the Ugly

Centre for Immunobiology, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101089
Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 14 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 26 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Retroviruses in Development and Disease)
The human genome has been under selective pressure to evolve in response to emerging pathogens and other environmental challenges. Genome evolution includes the acquisition of new genes or new isoforms of genes and changes to gene expression patterns. One source of genome innovation is from transposable elements (TEs), which carry their own promoters, enhancers and open reading frames and can act as ‘controlling elements’ for our own genes. TEs include LINE-1 elements, which can retrotranspose intracellularly and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that represent remnants of past retroviral germline infections. Although once pathogens, ERVs also represent an enticing source of incoming genetic material that the host can then repurpose. ERVs and other TEs have coevolved with host genes for millions of years, which has allowed them to become embedded within essential gene expression programmes. Intriguingly, these host genes are often subject to the same epigenetic control mechanisms that evolved to combat the TEs that now regulate them. Here, we illustrate the breadth of host gene regulation through TEs by focusing on examples of young (The New), ancient (The Old), and disease-causing (The Ugly) TE integrants. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene regulation; transposable elements; endogenous retroviruses; epigenetic repression; Intracisternal A-type particle elements; position-effect variegation; KRAB-associated protein 1; X chromosome inactivation; genomic imprinting gene regulation; transposable elements; endogenous retroviruses; epigenetic repression; Intracisternal A-type particle elements; position-effect variegation; KRAB-associated protein 1; X chromosome inactivation; genomic imprinting
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Enriquez-Gasca, R.; Gould, P.A.; Rowe, H.M. Host Gene Regulation by Transposable Elements: The New, the Old and the Ugly. Viruses 2020, 12, 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101089

AMA Style

Enriquez-Gasca R, Gould PA, Rowe HM. Host Gene Regulation by Transposable Elements: The New, the Old and the Ugly. Viruses. 2020; 12(10):1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Enriquez-Gasca, Rocio, Poppy A. Gould, and Helen M. Rowe 2020. "Host Gene Regulation by Transposable Elements: The New, the Old and the Ugly" Viruses 12, no. 10: 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101089

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop