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Open AccessArticle

Envelope-Specific IgG3 and IgG1 Responses Are Associated with Clearance of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

1
Viral Immunology Systems Program, The Kirby Institute, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010075
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be cleared naturally in a subset of individuals. However, the asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection makes the study of the early immune response and defining the correlates of protection challenging. Despite this, there is now strong evidence implicating the humoral immune response, specifically neutralising antibodies, in determining the clearance or chronicity outcomes of primary HCV infection. In general, immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays the major role in viral neutralisation. However, there are limited investigations of anti-HCV envelope protein 2 (E2) isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA) and IgG subclasses (IgG1–4) in early HCV infection. In this study, using a rare cohort of 14 very recently HCV-infected individuals (4–45 days) with varying disease outcome (n = 7 clearers), the timing and potency of anti-HCV E2 isotypes and IgG subclasses were examined longitudinally, in relation to neutralising antibody activity. Clearance was associated with anti-E2 IgG, specifically IgG1 and IgG3, and appeared essential to prevent the emergence of new HCV variants and the chronic infection outcome. Interestingly, these IgG responses were accompanied by IgM antibodies and were associated with neutralising antibody activity in the subjects who cleared infection. These findings provide novel insights into the early humoral immune response characteristics associated with HCV disease outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus (HCV); humoral immunity; antibody subclasses; antibody isotypes; envelope hepatitis C virus (HCV); humoral immunity; antibody subclasses; antibody isotypes; envelope
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walker, M.R.; Eltahla, A.A.; Mina, M.M.; Li, H.; Lloyd, A.R.; Bull, R.A. Envelope-Specific IgG3 and IgG1 Responses Are Associated with Clearance of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Viruses 2020, 12, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010075

AMA Style

Walker MR, Eltahla AA, Mina MM, Li H, Lloyd AR, Bull RA. Envelope-Specific IgG3 and IgG1 Responses Are Associated with Clearance of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Viruses. 2020; 12(1):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walker, Melanie R.; Eltahla, Auda A.; Mina, Michael M.; Li, Hui; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Bull, Rowena A. 2020. "Envelope-Specific IgG3 and IgG1 Responses Are Associated with Clearance of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection" Viruses 12, no. 1: 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010075

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