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Open AccessReview

Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?

1
UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 1161 Virologie, Anses (the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), INRAE (French National Institute of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Research), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
2
RESPE (Réseau d’épidémio-surveillance en pathologie équine), 14280 Saint-Contest, France
3
LABÉO, 14280 Saint-Contest, France
4
BIOTARGEN, UNICAEN, NORMANDIE UNIV, 14000 Caen, France
5
UMR EPIA (Epidémiologie des Maladies Animales et Zoonotiques), INRAE, VetAgro Sup, Université de Lyon, 69280 Marcy L’Etoile, France
6
Clinique Vétérinaire, 19 rue de Créhange, 57380 Faulquemont, France
7
AVEF (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française), Committee on Infectious Diseases, 75011 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010023
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses)
Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mission of prevention and surveillance, plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis of viral encephalitis. The general management of the horse is essentially supportive, focused on controlling pain and inflammation within the central nervous system, preventing injuries and providing supportive care. Despite its high medical relevance and economic impact in the equine industry, vaccines are not always available and there is no specific antiviral therapy. In this review, the major virological, clinical and epidemiological features of the main neuropathogenic viruses inducing encephalitis in equids in Europe, including rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae), Equid herpesviruses (Herpesviridae), Borna disease virus (Bornaviridae) and West Nile virus (Flaviviridae), as well as exotic viruses, will be presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: encephalitis; arbovirus; rabies; Equid herpesviruses; Borna disease virus; West Nile virus; horses encephalitis; arbovirus; rabies; Equid herpesviruses; Borna disease virus; West Nile virus; horses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lecollinet, S.; Pronost, S.; Coulpier, M.; Beck, C.; Gonzalez, G.; Leblond, A.; Tritz, P. Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe? Viruses 2020, 12, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010023

AMA Style

Lecollinet S, Pronost S, Coulpier M, Beck C, Gonzalez G, Leblond A, Tritz P. Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe? Viruses. 2020; 12(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pronost, Stéphane; Coulpier, Muriel; Beck, Cécile; Gonzalez, Gaelle; Leblond, Agnès; Tritz, Pierre. 2020. "Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?" Viruses 12, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010023

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