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Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticles in Experimental RSV Infection

1
Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology and Infectious Disease (CEIID), Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080732
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infection in children for which no specific treatment option is available. The RSV virion contains two surface glycoproteins (F and G) that are vital for the initial phases of infection, making them critical targets for RSV therapeutics. Recent studies have identified the broad-spectrum antiviral properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against respiratory pathogens, such as adenovirus, parainfluenza, and influenza. AgNPs achieve this by attaching to viral glycoproteins, blocking entry into the host cell. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of AgNPs in RSV infection. Herein we demonstrate AgNP-mediated reduction in RSV replication, both in epithelial cell lines and in experimentally infected BALB/c mice. Marked reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α) and pro-inflammatory chemokines (i.e., CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) was also observed. Conversely, CXCL1, G-CSF, and GM-CSF were increased in RSV-infected mice treated with AgNPs, consistent with an increase of neutrophil recruitment and activation in the lung tissue. Following experimental antibody-dependent depletion of neutrophils, the antiviral effect of AgNPs in mice treated was ablated. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo report demonstrating antiviral activity of AgNPs during RSV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus; silver nanoparticles; AgNP; neutrophils; anti-Ly6G; antiviral; epithelial cells; G-CSF; GM-CSF; KC respiratory syncytial virus; silver nanoparticles; AgNP; neutrophils; anti-Ly6G; antiviral; epithelial cells; G-CSF; GM-CSF; KC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Morris, D.; Ansar, M.; Speshock, J.; Ivanciuc, T.; Qu, Y.; Casola, A.; Garofalo, R.P. Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticles in Experimental RSV Infection. Viruses 2019, 11, 732.

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