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Genetic Diversity of Sapoviruses among Inpatients in Germany, 2008−2018

Institute of Virology, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contributed equally to the work.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080726
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Sapovirus enteric disease affects people of all ages across the globe, in both sporadic cases and outbreak settings. Sapovirus is seldom assessed in Germany and its epidemiology in the country is essentially unknown. Thus, sapovirus occurrence and genetic diversity were studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of major viral structural protein (VP1) gene in two different sets of stool samples: (1) a selection of 342 diarrheal stools collected from inpatient children during 2008−2009, and (2) 5555 stool samples collected during 2010–2018 from inpatients of all age groups with gastrointestinal complaints. Results showed year-round circulation of sapoviruses, with peaks during cooler months. In total, 30 samples (8.8%) of the first and 112 samples of the second set of samples (2.0%) were sapovirus positive. Capsid gene sequencing was successful in 134/142 samples (94.4%) and showed circulation of all known human pathogenic genogroups. Genotype GI.1 predominated (31.8%), followed by GII.1 (16.7%), GII.3 (14.5%), GI.2 (13.8%) and GV.1 (12.3%). Additionally, minor circulation of GI.3, GI.6, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6 and GIV.1 was shown. Consequently, sapovirus diagnostics need broadly reactive RT-PCR protocols and should particularly be considered in infants and young children. Further studies from other sampling sites are essential to extend our knowledge on sapovirus epidemiology in Germany. View Full-Text
Keywords: sapovirus; viral gastroenteritis; molecular epidemiology; genotyping; childhood diarrhea; nucleic acid sequencing; phylogenetic analysis; enteric infections; caliciviruses sapovirus; viral gastroenteritis; molecular epidemiology; genotyping; childhood diarrhea; nucleic acid sequencing; phylogenetic analysis; enteric infections; caliciviruses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mann, P.; Pietsch, C.; Liebert, U.G. Genetic Diversity of Sapoviruses among Inpatients in Germany, 2008−2018. Viruses 2019, 11, 726.

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