Next Article in Journal
Prevalence, Geographic Distribution, Risk Factors and Co-Infections of Feline Gammaherpesvirus Infections in Domestic Cats in Switzerland
Previous Article in Journal
Hepatitis E Virus Replication
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Protocol for Extraction of Infective Viromes Suitable for Metagenomics Sequencing from Low Volume Fecal Samples
Open AccessCommunication

Rates of Molecular Evolution in a Marine Synechococcus Phage Lineage

Genomic Microbiology Group, Institute of General Microbiology, Christian-Albrechts University, 24118 Kiel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 720;
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
Cyanophages are characterized by vast genomic diversity and the formation of stable ecotypes over time. The evolution of phage diversity includes vertical processes, such as mutation, and horizontal processes, such as recombination and gene transfer. Here, we study the contribution of vertical and horizontal processes to short-term evolution of marine cyanophages. Analyzing time series data of Synechococcus-infecting Myoviridae ecotypes spanning up to 17 years, we found a high contribution of recombination relative to mutation (r/m) in all ecotypes. Additionally, we found a molecular clock of substitution and recombination in one ecotype, RIM8. The estimated RIM8 evolutionary rates are 2.2 genome-wide substitutions per year (1.275 × 10−5 substitutions/site/year) and 29 genome-wide nucleotide alterations due to recombination per year. We found 26 variable protein families, of which only two families have a predicted functional annotation, suggesting that they are auxiliary metabolic genes with bacterial homologs. A comparison of our rate estimates to other phage evolutionary rate estimates in the literature reveals a negative correlation of phage substitution rates with their genome size. A comparison to evolutionary rates in bacterial organisms further shows that phages have high rates of mutation and recombination compared to their bacterial hosts. We conclude that the increased recombination rate in phages likely contributes to their vast genomic diversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: substitution rate; recombination rate; gene turnover; cyanophage substitution rate; recombination rate; gene turnover; cyanophage
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kupczok, A.; Dagan, T. Rates of Molecular Evolution in a Marine Synechococcus Phage Lineage. Viruses 2019, 11, 720.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop