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Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
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Viruses 2019, 11(7), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070643
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission Dynamics of Insect Viruses)
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Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of vertebrates including dengue, zika, chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and blue tongue viruses cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans, agricultural animals, and wildlife across the globe. As obligate intercellular pathogens, arboviruses must be well adapted to the cellular and molecular environment of both their arthropod (invertebrate) and vertebrate hosts, which are vastly different due to hundreds of millions of years of separate evolution. Here we discuss the comparative pressures on arbovirus RNA genomes as a result of a dual host life cycle, focusing on pressures that do not alter amino acids. We summarize what is currently known about arboviral genetic composition, such as dinucleotide and codon usage, and how cyclical infection of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts results in different genetic profiles compared with single-host viruses. To serve as a comparison, we compile what is known about arthropod tRNA, dinucleotide, and codon usages and compare this with vertebrates. Additionally, we discuss the potential roles of genetic robustness in arboviral evolution and how it may vary from other viruses. Overall, both arthropod and vertebrate hosts influence the resulting genetic composition of arboviruses, but a great deal remains to be investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinucleotide; codon; robustness; mosquito; arthropod-borne viruses; arbovirus; purifying selection; diversification dinucleotide; codon; robustness; mosquito; arthropod-borne viruses; arbovirus; purifying selection; diversification
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Sexton, N.R.; Ebel, G.D. Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns. Viruses 2019, 11, 643.

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