Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns
AbstractArthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of vertebrates including dengue, zika, chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and blue tongue viruses cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans, agricultural animals, and wildlife across the globe. As obligate intercellular pathogens, arboviruses must be well adapted to the cellular and molecular environment of both their arthropod (invertebrate) and vertebrate hosts, which are vastly different due to hundreds of millions of years of separate evolution. Here we discuss the comparative pressures on arbovirus RNA genomes as a result of a dual host life cycle, focusing on pressures that do not alter amino acids. We summarize what is currently known about arboviral genetic composition, such as dinucleotide and codon usage, and how cyclical infection of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts results in different genetic profiles compared with single-host viruses. To serve as a comparison, we compile what is known about arthropod tRNA, dinucleotide, and codon usages and compare this with vertebrates. Additionally, we discuss the potential roles of genetic robustness in arboviral evolution and how it may vary from other viruses. Overall, both arthropod and vertebrate hosts influence the resulting genetic composition of arboviruses, but a great deal remains to be investigated. View Full-Text
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Sexton, N.R.; Ebel, G.D. Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns. Viruses 2019, 11, 643.
Sexton NR, Ebel GD. Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns. Viruses. 2019; 11(7):643.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sexton, Nicole R.; Ebel, Gregory D. 2019. "Effects of Arbovirus Multi-Host Life Cycles on Dinucleotide and Codon Usage Patterns." Viruses 11, no. 7: 643.
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