Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges
AbstractNoroviruses, in the genus Norovirus, are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. For almost 50 years, the lack of a cultivation system for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) was a major barrier to understanding virus biology and the development of effective antiviral strategies. This review presents a historical perspective of the development of a cultivation system for HuNoVs in human intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Successful cultivation was based on the discovery of genetically-encoded host factors required for infection, knowledge of the site of infection in humans, and advances in the cultivation of human intestinal epithelial cells achieved by developmental and stem cell biologists. The human stem cell-derived enteroid cultivation system recapitulates the multicellular, physiologically active human intestinal epithelium, and allows studies of virus-specific replication requirements, evaluation of human host-pathogen interactions, and supports the pre-clinical assessment of methods to prevent and treat HuNoV infections. View Full-Text
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Estes, M.K.; Ettayebi, K.; Tenge, V.R.; Murakami, K.; Karandikar, U.; Lin, S.-C.; Ayyar, B.V.; Cortes-Penfield, N.W.; Haga, K.; Neill, F.H.; Opekun, A.R.; Broughman, J.R.; Zeng, X.-L.; Blutt, S.E.; Crawford, S.E.; Ramani, S.; Graham, D.Y.; Atmar, R.L. Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges. Viruses 2019, 11, 638.
Estes MK, Ettayebi K, Tenge VR, Murakami K, Karandikar U, Lin S-C, Ayyar BV, Cortes-Penfield NW, Haga K, Neill FH, Opekun AR, Broughman JR, Zeng X-L, Blutt SE, Crawford SE, Ramani S, Graham DY, Atmar RL. Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges. Viruses. 2019; 11(7):638.Chicago/Turabian Style
Estes, Mary K.; Ettayebi, Khalil; Tenge, Victoria R.; Murakami, Kosuke; Karandikar, Umesh; Lin, Shih-Ching; Ayyar, B. V.; Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W.; Haga, Kei; Neill, Frederick H.; Opekun, Antone R.; Broughman, James R.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Graham, David Y.; Atmar, Robert L. 2019. "Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges." Viruses 11, no. 7: 638.
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