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In Vitro Replication of Human Norovirus

Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 547;
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
Human norovirus (HuNoV) infection is a major cause of gastroenteritis all over the world. Despite this, these non-enveloped RNA viruses are poorly characterized due to the lack of robust and widely available HuNoV culture systems. The two published systems (B cell line and stem cell-derived enteroids) support replication of HuNoVs but the levels of replication are not sufficient for the generation of highly purified virus stocks or the development of culture-based quantification assays. Therefore, improvement of HuNoV in vitro replication is still needed. Murine norovirus and other caliciviruses have provided insights into norovirus replication that paved the way for the development of the current HuNoV culture systems and may also aid in the improvement of these systems. This review will highlight ways in which previous research guided and impacted the development of HuNoV culture systems and discuss ways in which more recent discoveries might be utilized to improve the quality of the HuNoV in vitro replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: human norovirus; murine norovirus; human intestinal enteroids; norovirus replication; in vitro culture models human norovirus; murine norovirus; human intestinal enteroids; norovirus replication; in vitro culture models
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Bhar, S.; Jones, M.K. In Vitro Replication of Human Norovirus. Viruses 2019, 11, 547.

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