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Antiviral Efficacy of Flavonoids against Enterovirus 71 Infection in Vitro and in Newborn Mice

1
National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
2
Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070625
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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PDF [2950 KB, uploaded 7 July 2019]
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Abstract

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is known to cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is associated with neurological complications; however, there is currently no effective treatment for this infection. Flavonoids are a large group of naturally occurring compounds with multiple bioactivities, and the inhibitory effects of several flavonoids against EV71 have been studied in cell cultures; however, to date, there are no reported data on their effects in animal models. In this study, we confirmed the in vitro activities of eight flavonoids against EV71 infection, based on the inhibition of cytopathic effects. Moreover, these flavonoids were found to reduce viral genomic RNA replication and protein synthesis. We further demonstrated the protective efficacy of these flavonoids in newborn mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71. Apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, formononetin, and penduletin conferred survival protection of 88.89%, 91.67%, 88.89%, 75%, and 66.67%, respectively, from the lethal EV71 challenge. In addition, isorhamnetin provided the highest mice survival protection of 100% at a dose of 10 mg/kg. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to evaluate the in vivo anti-EV7l activities of multiple flavonoids, and we accordingly identified flavonoids as potential leading compounds for anti-EV71 drug development. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterovirus 71; flavonoid; isorhamnetin; antiviral efficacy; inhibition of cytopathic effects; survival rate enterovirus 71; flavonoid; isorhamnetin; antiviral efficacy; inhibition of cytopathic effects; survival rate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dai, W.; Bi, J.; Li, F.; Wang, S.; Huang, X.; Meng, X.; Sun, B.; Wang, D.; Kong, W.; Jiang, C.; Su, W. Antiviral Efficacy of Flavonoids against Enterovirus 71 Infection in Vitro and in Newborn Mice. Viruses 2019, 11, 625.

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