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The Clinical Perspective on Hepatitis E

1
Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 22527 Hamburg, Germany
2
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel and Heidelberg Partner sites, 22527 Hamburg, Germany
3
Institute of Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 22527 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070617
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis E Virus)
Every year, there are an estimated 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections worldwide, leading to an estimated 3.3 million symptomatic cases of hepatitis E. HEV is largely circulating in the west and is associated with several hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. HEV Genotype 1 and 2 infections are waterborne and causative for epidemics in the tropics, while genotype 3 and 4 infections are zoonotic diseases and are mainly transmitted by ingestion of undercooked pork in industrialized nations. The clinical course of these infections differs: genotype 1 and 2 infection can cause acute illness and can lead to acute liver failure (ALF) or acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) with a high mortality rate of 20% in pregnant women. In contrast, the majority of HEV GT-3 and -4 infections have a clinically asymptomatic course and only rarely lead to acute on chronic liver failure in elderly or patients with underlying liver disease. Immunosuppressed individuals infected with genotype 3 or 4 may develop chronic hepatitis E, which then can lead to life-threatening cirrhosis. Furthermore, several extra-hepatic manifestations affecting various organs have been associated with ongoing or previous HEV infections but the causal link for many of them still needs to be proven. There is no approved specific therapy for the treatment of acute or chronic HEV GT-3 or -4 infections but off-label use of ribavirin has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the majority of patients. However, in approximately 15% of chronically HEV infected patients, cure is not possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hepatitis E; HEV Hepatitis E; HEV
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Horvatits, T.; Schulze zur Wiesch, J.; Lütgehetmann, M.; Lohse, A.W.; Pischke, S. The Clinical Perspective on Hepatitis E. Viruses 2019, 11, 617.

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