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Open AccessArticle

Mouse Vendor Influence on the Bacterial and Viral Gut Composition Exceeds the Effect of Diet

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 435;
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
Often physiological studies using mice from one vendor show different outcome when being reproduced using mice from another vendor. These divergent phenotypes between similar mouse strains from different vendors have been assigned to differences in the gut microbiome. During recent years, evidence has mounted that the gut viral community plays a key role in shaping the gut microbiome and may thus also influence mouse phenotype. However, to date inter-vendor variation in the murine gut virome has not been studied. Using a metavirome approach, combined with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we here compare the composition of the viral and bacterial gut community of C57BL/6N mice from three different vendors exposed to either a chow-based low-fat diet or high-fat diet. Interestingly, both the bacterial and the viral component of the gut community differed significantly between vendors. The different diets also strongly influenced both the viral and bacterial gut community, but surprisingly the effect of vendor exceeded the effect of diet. In conclusion, the vendor effect is substantial not only on the gut bacterial community but also strongly influences viral community composition. Given the effect of GM on mice phenotype, this is essential to consider for increasing reproducibility of mouse studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacteriophages; gut microbiota; animal model reproducibility; vendor effect; virome Bacteriophages; gut microbiota; animal model reproducibility; vendor effect; virome
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Rasmussen, T.S.; de Vries, L.; Kot, W.; Hansen, L.H.; Castro-Mejía, J.L.; Vogensen, F.K.; Hansen, A.K.; Nielsen, D.S. Mouse Vendor Influence on the Bacterial and Viral Gut Composition Exceeds the Effect of Diet. Viruses 2019, 11, 435.

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