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Treatment of Metastatic Disease through Natural Killer Cell Modulation by Infected Cell Vaccines

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke QC J1E 4K8, Canada
2
Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke QC J1E 4K8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050434
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of NK Cells in Antiviral Innate Immunity)
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Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are a form of immunotherapy that release tumor antigens in the context of highly immunogenic viral signals following tumor-targeted infection and destruction. Emerging preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that this in situ vaccine effect is critical for successful viro-immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the application of OV as an infected cell vaccine (ICV) as one method of enhancing the potency and breadth of anti-tumoral immunity. We focus on understanding and manipulating the critical role of natural killer (NK) cells and their interactions with other immune cells to promote a clinical outcome. With a synergistic tumor killing and immune activating mechanism, ICVs represent a valuable new addition to the cancer fighting toolbox with the potential to treat malignant disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; oncolytic virus; autologous cancer vaccines; infected cell vaccines; natural killer cells; immunomonitoring immunotherapy; oncolytic virus; autologous cancer vaccines; infected cell vaccines; natural killer cells; immunomonitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Niavarani, S.R.; Lawson, C.; Tai, L.-H. Treatment of Metastatic Disease through Natural Killer Cell Modulation by Infected Cell Vaccines. Viruses 2019, 11, 434.

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