Next Article in Journal
What’s New with Flu? An Overview
Next Article in Special Issue
Efficient Production of Human Norovirus-Specific IgY in Egg Yolks by Vaccination of Hens with a Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing VP1 Protein
Previous Article in Journal
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance Cell Killing and Block Interferon-Beta Synthesis Elicited by Infection with an Oncolytic Parainfluenza Virus
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Depth Breadth Analyses of Human Blockade Responses to Norovirus and Response to Vaccination
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

The Antigenic Topology of Norovirus as Defined by B and T Cell Epitope Mapping: Implications for Universal Vaccines and Therapeutics

Caliciviruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050432
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
  |  
PDF [27387 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Vaccine design has been confounded by the antigenic diversity of these viruses and a limited understanding of protective immunity. We reviewed 77 articles published since 1988 describing the isolation, function, and mapping of 307 unique monoclonal antibodies directed against B cell epitopes of human and murine noroviruses representing diverse Genogroups (G). Of these antibodies, 91, 153, 21, and 42 were reported as GI-specific, GII-specific, MNV GV-specific, and G cross-reactive, respectively. Our goal was to reconstruct the antigenic topology of noroviruses in relationship to mapped epitopes with potential for therapeutic use or inclusion in universal vaccines. Furthermore, we reviewed seven published studies of norovirus T cell epitopes that identified 18 unique peptide sequences with CD4- or CD8-stimulating activity. Both the protruding (P) and shell (S) domains of the major capsid protein VP1 contained B and T cell epitopes, with the majority of neutralizing and HBGA-blocking B cell epitopes mapping in or proximal to the surface-exposed P2 region of the P domain. The majority of broadly reactive B and T cell epitopes mapped to the S and P1 arm of the P domain. Taken together, this atlas of mapped B and T cell epitopes offers insight into the promises and challenges of designing universal vaccines and immunotherapy for the noroviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: norovirus; adaptive immunity; monoclonal antibodies; epitope mapping; T cell epitopes; B cell epitopes; therapeutic antibodies; nanobodies (VHH); scFv; universal vaccines norovirus; adaptive immunity; monoclonal antibodies; epitope mapping; T cell epitopes; B cell epitopes; therapeutic antibodies; nanobodies (VHH); scFv; universal vaccines
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

van Loben Sels, J.M.; Green, K.Y. The Antigenic Topology of Norovirus as Defined by B and T Cell Epitope Mapping: Implications for Universal Vaccines and Therapeutics. Viruses 2019, 11, 432.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top