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Open AccessArticle

Efficient Production of Human Norovirus-Specific IgY in Egg Yolks by Vaccination of Hens with a Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing VP1 Protein

1
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Program in Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: School of Agriculture & Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050444
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is responsible for more than 95% of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines or effective therapeutic interventions against this virus. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY)-based passive immunization has been shown to be an effective strategy to prevent and treat many enteric viral diseases. Here, we developed a highly efficient bioreactor to generate high titers of HuNoV-specific IgY in chicken yolks using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing HuNoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) as an antigen. We first demonstrated that HuNoV VP1 protein was highly expressed in chicken cells infected by rVSV-VP1. Subsequently, we found that White Leghorn hens immunized intramuscularly with rVSV-VP1 triggered a high level of HuNoV-specific yolk IgY antibodies. The purified yolk IgY was efficiently recognized by HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs). Importantly, HuNoV-specific IgY efficiently blocked the binding of HuNoV VLPs to all three types (A, B, and O) of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), the attachment factors for HuNoV. In addition, the receptor blocking activity of IgY remained stable at temperature below 70 °C and at pH ranging from 4 to 9. Thus, immunization of hens with VSV-VP1 could be a cost-effective and practical strategy for large-scale production of anti-HuNoV IgY antibodies for potential use as prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against HuNoV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Human norovirus; IgY; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine Human norovirus; IgY; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine
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Zhu, Y.; Ma, Y.; Lu, M.; Zhang, Y.; Li, A.; Liang, X.; Li, J. Efficient Production of Human Norovirus-Specific IgY in Egg Yolks by Vaccination of Hens with a Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing VP1 Protein. Viruses 2019, 11, 444.

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