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Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence in HCV Patients Treated with Direct Antiviral Agents

1
Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Médica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050406
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cure of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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Abstract

The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence is universal regardless of the treatment modality applied, and secondary prevention is still an unmet issue even though the elimination of hepatitis C (HCV) with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) was expected to be one of the new options. Unfortunately, the impact of DAAs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development (de novo and recurrence) is still controversial. Since the first publication on the subject in 2016, almost all groups worldwide have carried out research in this field with hundreds of publications now available. This revision is focused on the impact of DAAs on HCC recurrence and aims to discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and host factors pointing out the time association phenomenon between DAA treatment and HCC recurrence. Moreover, we comment on the methodological issues that could affect the different interpretations of the published results. In conclusion, this is an area of research with potential in the understanding of the impact of factors not previously considered, and may also help change hepatocarcinogenesis tenets, such as the belief that the elimination of HCV should be used as a second prevention treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver cancer; recurrence; sustained virologic response; DAA hepatitis C virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver cancer; recurrence; sustained virologic response; DAA
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Sanduzzi-Zamparelli, M.; Boix, L.; Leal, C.; Reig, M. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence in HCV Patients Treated with Direct Antiviral Agents. Viruses 2019, 11, 406.

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