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Nitric Oxide as a Downstream Signaling Molecule in Brassinosteroid-Mediated Virus Susceptibility to Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Maize

1, 1,* and 1,2,*
1
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pest, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040368
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Immunity to Virus Infections)
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Abstract

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infection causes growth abnormalities in maize. Transcriptome sequencing was conducted to compare the global gene expression of MCMV-inoculated plants with that of mock-inoculated plants. Data analyses showed that brassinosteroid (BR)-associated genes were upregulated after MCMV infection. Exogenous 2,4-epibrassinolide (BL) or brassinazole (BRZ) applications indicated that BR pathway was involved in the susceptibility to MCMV infection. In addition, treatment of BL on maize induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and the changes of NO content played positive roles in the disease incidence of MCMV. Moreover, MCMV infection was delayed when the BL-treated plants were applied with NO scavenger, which suggested that BR induced the susceptibility of maize to MCMV infection in a NO-dependent manner. Further investigation showed the maize plants with knock-down of DWARF4 (ZmDWF4, a key gene of BR synthesis) and nitrate reductase (ZmNR, a key gene of NO synthesis) by virus-induced gene silencing displayed higher resistance to MCMV than control plants. Taken together, our results suggest that BR pathway promotes the susceptibility of maize to MCMV in a NO-dependent manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: maize chlorotic mottle virus; brassinosteroid; nitric oxide; virus susceptibility maize chlorotic mottle virus; brassinosteroid; nitric oxide; virus susceptibility
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Cao, N.; Zhan, B.; Zhou, X. Nitric Oxide as a Downstream Signaling Molecule in Brassinosteroid-Mediated Virus Susceptibility to Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Maize. Viruses 2019, 11, 368.

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