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Viruses 2019, 11(4), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040354

Description of a Natural Infection with Decapod Iridescent Virus 1 in Farmed Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

1,†, 1,2,†, 1,3, 1, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao); Key Laboratory of Maricultural Organism Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; Qingdao Key Laboratory of Mariculture Epidemiology and Biosecurity, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
3
Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed to the work equally and should be regarded as co-first authors.
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a valuable freshwater prawn in Asian aquaculture. In recent years, a new symptom that was generally called “white head” has caused high mortality in M. rosenbergii farms in China. Samples of M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, Procambarus clarkii, M. superbum, Penaeus vannamei, and Cladocera from a farm suffering from white head in Jiangsu Province were collected and analyzed in this study. Pathogen detection showed that all samples were positive for Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1). Histopathological examination revealed dark eosinophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue, hepatopancreas, and gills of M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense. Blue signals of in situ digoxigenin-labeled loop-mediated isothermal amplification appeared in hematopoietic tissue, hemocytes, hepatopancreatic sinus, and antennal gland. Transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections showed a large number of DIV1 particles with a mean diameter about 157.9 nm. The virogenic stromata and budding virions were observed in hematopoietic cells. Quantitative detection with TaqMan probe based real-time PCR of different tissues in naturally infected M. rosenbergii showed that hematopoietic tissue contained the highest DIV1 load with a relative abundance of 25.4 ± 16.9%. Hepatopancreas and muscle contained the lowest DIV1 loads with relative abundances of 2.44 ± 1.24% and 2.44 ± 2.16%, respectively. The above results verified that DIV1 is the pathogen causing white head in M. rosenbergii. M. nipponense and Pr. clarkii are also species susceptible to DIV1. View Full-Text
Keywords: DIV1; SHIV; CQIV; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Macrobrachium nipponense; Procambarus clarkii; white head; susceptible species; viral load DIV1; SHIV; CQIV; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Macrobrachium nipponense; Procambarus clarkii; white head; susceptible species; viral load
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Qiu, L.; Chen, X.; Zhao, R.-H.; Li, C.; Gao, W.; Zhang, Q.-L.; Huang, J. Description of a Natural Infection with Decapod Iridescent Virus 1 in Farmed Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Viruses 2019, 11, 354.

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