Next Article in Journal
Norovirus Infections and Disease in Lower-Middle- and Low-Income Countries, 1997–2018
Previous Article in Journal
Histo-Blood Group Antigens in Children with Symptomatic Rotavirus Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development and Characterization of a Sin Nombre Virus Transmission Model in Peromyscus maniculatus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 340;

Hypopituitarism after Orthohantavirus Infection: What is Currently Known?

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, ‘s-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, ‘s-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
PDF [484 KB, uploaded 10 April 2019]


Several case reports have described hypopituitarism following orthohantavirus infection, mostly following Puumala virus. The pathogenesis of this seemingly rare complication of orthohantavirus infection remains unknown. This review explores the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of pituitary damage due to orthohantavirus infection. In only three out of the 28 reported cases, hypopituitarism was detected during active infection. In the remaining cases, detection of pituitary damage was delayed, varying from two months up to thirteen months post-infection. In these cases, hypopituitarism remained undetected during the acute phase of infection or only occurred weeks to months post infection. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic damage of the pituitary gland have been detected in radiographic imaging and post-mortem studies in the studied case reports series. Ischemic damage could be caused by hypotension and/or vasospasms during the acute phase of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) while hemorrhage could be caused by thrombocytopenia, thrombopathy, and other known causes of coagulation disorders during orthohantavirus infection. Also, hypophysitis due to the presence of auto-antibodies have been suggested in the literature. In conclusion, a significant number of case reports and series describe hypopituitarism after orthohantavirus infection. In most cases hypopituitarism was diagnosed with a delay and therefore could very well be underreported. Clinicians should be aware of this potential endocrine complication, with substantial morbidity, and if unrecognized, significant mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: orthohantavirus; HFRS; hypopituitarism; endocrine disturbances; review orthohantavirus; HFRS; hypopituitarism; endocrine disturbances; review

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bhoelan, S.; Langerak, T.; Noack, D.; van Schinkel, L.; van Nood, E.; van Gorp, E.C.; Rockx, B.; Goeijenbier, M. Hypopituitarism after Orthohantavirus Infection: What is Currently Known? Viruses 2019, 11, 340.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top