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Geographic Distribution of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in Freshwater Fish in South Eastern Australia: Lost Opportunity for a Notifiable Pathogen to Expand Its Geographic Range

1
Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia
2
NSW Industry and Investment, Batemans Bay Fisheries Office, Batemans Bay 2536, Australia
3
NSW Industry and Investment, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera 2700, Australia
4
OIE Reference Laboratory for Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus and Ranavirus Infection of Amphibians, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040315
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract

Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) was originally detected in Victoria, Australia in 1984. It spread rapidly over two decades with epidemic mortality events in wild redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis) and mild disease in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) being documented across southeastern Australia in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Victoria, and South Australia. We conducted a survey for EHNV between July 2007 and June 2011. The disease occurred in juvenile redfin perch in ACT in December 2008, and in NSW in December 2009 and December 2010. Based on testing 3622 tissue and 492 blood samples collected from fish across southeastern Australia, it was concluded that EHNV was most likely absent from redfin perch outside the endemic area in the upper Murrumbidgee River catchment in the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB), and it was not detected in other fish species. The frequency of outbreaks in redfin perch has diminished over time, and there have been no reports since 2012. As the disease is notifiable and a range of fish species are known to be susceptible to EHNV, existing policies to reduce the likelihood of spreading out of the endemic area are justified. View Full-Text
Keywords: iridovirus; ranavirus; epidemiology; antibody; ELISA; virus isolation; prevalence; native-fish conservation; biosecurity; endemic disease iridovirus; ranavirus; epidemiology; antibody; ELISA; virus isolation; prevalence; native-fish conservation; biosecurity; endemic disease
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Becker, J.A.; Gilligan, D.; Asmus, M.; Tweedie, A.; Whittington, R.J. Geographic Distribution of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in Freshwater Fish in South Eastern Australia: Lost Opportunity for a Notifiable Pathogen to Expand Its Geographic Range. Viruses 2019, 11, 315.

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