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Viruses 2019, 11(4), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040311

HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein at the Interface of Host Restriction and Virus Evasion

1
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
2
Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
3
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
4
Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Ten-Year Anniversary)
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PDF [800 KB, uploaded 30 March 2019]
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Abstract

Without viral envelope proteins, viruses cannot enter cells to start infection. As the major viral proteins present on the surface of virions, viral envelope proteins are a prominent target of the host immune system in preventing and ultimately eliminating viral infection. In addition to the well-appreciated adaptive immunity that produces envelope protein-specific antibodies and T cell responses, recent studies have begun to unveil a rich layer of host innate immune mechanisms restricting viral entry. This review focuses on the exciting progress that has been made in this new direction of research, by discussing various known examples of host restriction of viral entry, and diverse viral countering strategies, in particular, the emerging role of viral envelope proteins in evading host innate immune suppression. We will also highlight the effective cooperation between innate and adaptive immunity to achieve the synergistic control of viral infection by targeting viral envelope protein and checking viral escape. Given that many of the related findings were made with HIV-1, we will use HIV-1 as the model virus to illustrate the basic principles and molecular mechanisms on host restriction targeting HIV-1 envelope protein. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral envelope protein; HIV; host restriction factor; viral antagonism; viral entry; innate immunity; adaptive immunity viral envelope protein; HIV; host restriction factor; viral antagonism; viral entry; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
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Beitari, S.; Wang, Y.; Liu, S.-L.; Liang, C. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein at the Interface of Host Restriction and Virus Evasion. Viruses 2019, 11, 311.

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