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Arthritogenic Alphavirus-Induced Immunopathology and Targeting Host Inflammation as A Therapeutic Strategy for Alphaviral Disease

Emerging Viruses and Inflammation Research Group, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
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Viruses 2019, 11(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030290
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Arthritogenic alphaviruses are a group of medically important arboviruses that cause inflammatory musculoskeletal disease in humans with debilitating symptoms, such as arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia. The arthritogenic, or Old World, alphaviruses are capable of causing explosive outbreaks, with some viruses of major global concern. At present, there are no specific therapeutics or commercially available vaccines available to prevent alphaviral disease. Infected patients are typically treated with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to provide often inadequate symptomatic relief. Studies to determine the mechanisms of arthritogenic alphaviral disease have highlighted the role of the host immune system in disease pathogenesis. This review discusses the current knowledge of the innate immune response to acute alphavirus infection and alphavirus-induced immunopathology. Therapeutic strategies to treat arthritogenic alphavirus disease by targeting the host immune response are also examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: alphavirus; arthralgia; chikungunya; Ross River virus; emerging virus; mosquito-borne alphavirus; arthralgia; chikungunya; Ross River virus; emerging virus; mosquito-borne
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Mostafavi, H.; Abeyratne, E.; Zaid, A.; Taylor, A. Arthritogenic Alphavirus-Induced Immunopathology and Targeting Host Inflammation as A Therapeutic Strategy for Alphaviral Disease. Viruses 2019, 11, 290.

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