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Ginsenoside Rg1 Suppresses Type 2 PRRSV Infection via NF-κB Signaling Pathway In Vitro, and Provides Partial Protection against HP-PRRSV in Piglet

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510462, China
2
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510462, China
3
School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528225, China
4
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
5
OIE Reference Laboratory for PRRS in China, China Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing 100125, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111045
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 10 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Agents)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a huge threat to the modern pig industry, and current vaccine prevention strategies could not provide full protection against it. Therefore, exploring new anti-PRRSV strategies is urgently needed. Ginsenoside Rg1, derived from ginseng and notoginseng, is shown to exert anti-inflammatory, neuronal apoptosis-suppressing and anti-oxidant effects. Here we demonstrate Rg1-inhibited PRRSV infection both in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in a dose-dependent manner. Rg1 treatment affected multiple steps of the PRRSV lifecycle, including virus attachment, replication and release at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM. Meanwhile, Rg1 exhibited broad inhibitory activities against Type 2 PRRSV, including highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) XH-GD and JXA1, NADC-30-like strain HNLY and classical strain VR2332. Mechanistically, Rg1 reduced mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, and decreased NF-κB signaling activation triggered by PRRSV infection. Furthermore, 4-week old piglets intramuscularly treated with Rg1 after being challenged with the HP-PRRSV JXA1 strain display moderate lung injury, decreased viral load in serum and tissues, and an improved survival rate. Collectively, our study provides research basis and supportive clinical data for using Ginsenoside Rg1 in PRRSV therapies in swine.
Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; ginsenoside Rg1; antiviral activity; pro-inflammatory factor; NF-κB signaling pathway porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; ginsenoside Rg1; antiviral activity; pro-inflammatory factor; NF-κB signaling pathway
MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, Z.-Q.; Yi, H.-Y.; Ma, J.; Wei, Y.-F.; Cai, M.-K.; Li, Q.; Qin, C.-X.; Chen, Y.-J.; Han, X.-L.; Zhong, R.-T.; Chen, Y.; Liang, G.; Deng, Q.; Tian, K.; Wang, H.; Zhang, G.-H. Ginsenoside Rg1 Suppresses Type 2 PRRSV Infection via NF-κB Signaling Pathway In Vitro, and Provides Partial Protection against HP-PRRSV in Piglet. Viruses 2019, 11, 1045.

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