Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important animal and human emerging and re-emerging pathogens that are responsible for yearly seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. IAVs cause a wide range of clinical illnesses, from relatively mild infections by seasonal strains, to acute respiratory distress during infections with highly pathogenic avian IAVs (HPAI). For this study, we infected A549 human lung cells with lab prototype A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), a seasonal H1N1 (RV733), the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdm09), or with two avian strains, an H5N1 HPAI strain or an H7N9 strain that has low pathogenicity in birds but high pathogenicity in humans. We used a newly-developed aptamer-based multiplexed technique (SOMAscan®
) to examine >1300 human lung cell proteins affected by the different IAV strains, and identified more than 500 significantly dysregulated cellular proteins. Our analyses indicated that the avian strains induced more profound changes in the A549 global proteome compared to all tested low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains. The PR8 strain induced a general activation, primarily by upregulating many immune molecules, the seasonal RV733 and pdm09 strains had minimal effect upon assayed molecules, and the avian strains induced significant downregulation, primarily in antimicrobial response, cardiovascular and post-translational modification systems.
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