Several notable human diseases are caused by enveloped RNA viruses: Influenza, AIDS, hepatitis C, dengue hemorrhagic fever, microcephaly, and Guillain–Barré Syndrome. Being enveloped, the life cycle of this group of viruses is critically dependent on host lipid biosynthesis. Viral binding and entry involve interactions between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors localized to lipid-rich regions of the plasma membrane. Subsequent infection by these viruses leads to reorganization of cellular membranes and lipid metabolism to support the production of new viral particles. Recent work has focused on defining the involvement of specific lipid classes in the entry, genome replication assembly, and viral particle formation of these viruses in hopes of identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment or prevention of disease. In this review, we will highlight the role of host sphingolipids in the lifecycle of several medically important enveloped RNA viruses.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited