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Open AccessArticle

Co-Circulation and Excretion Dynamics of Diverse Rubula- and Related Viruses in Egyptian Rousette Bats from South Africa

1
Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
2
Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
3
UMR Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, 97490 Sainte-Clotilde, Reunion Island, France
4
Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010037
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats 2019)
The Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has previously been implicated as the natural host of a zoonotic rubulavirus; however, its association with rubulaviruses has been studied to a limited extent. Urine, spleen, and other organs collected from the R. aegyptiacus population within South Africa were tested with a hemi-nested RT-PCR assay targeting a partial polymerase gene region of viruses from the Avula- and Rubulavirus genera. Urine was collected over a 14-month period to study the temporal dynamics of viral excretion. Diverse rubulaviruses, including viruses related to human mumps and parainfluenza virus 2, were detected. Active excretion was identified during two peak periods coinciding with the host reproductive cycle. Analysis of additional organs indicated co-infection of individual bats with a number of different putative rubulaviruses, highlighting the limitations of using a single sample type when determining viral presence and diversity. Our findings suggest that R. aegyptiacus can harbor a range of Rubula- and related viruses, some of which are related to known human pathogens. The observed peaks in viral excretion represents potential periods of a higher risk of virus transmission and zoonotic disease spill-over. View Full-Text
Keywords: paramyxovirus; rubulavirus; Egyptian rousette bat; co-circulation; viral shedding; tissue distribution; human mumps virus-related; human parainfluenza virus-related; excretion dynamics paramyxovirus; rubulavirus; Egyptian rousette bat; co-circulation; viral shedding; tissue distribution; human mumps virus-related; human parainfluenza virus-related; excretion dynamics
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Mortlock, M.; Dietrich, M.; Weyer, J.; Paweska, J.T.; Markotter, W. Co-Circulation and Excretion Dynamics of Diverse Rubula- and Related Viruses in Egyptian Rousette Bats from South Africa. Viruses 2019, 11, 37.

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