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Open AccessReview

Interactions between Bacteriophage, Bacteria, and the Mammalian Immune System

Laboratory Bacteriology Research, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, 53-114 Wrocław, Poland
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 10;
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
The human body is host to large numbers of bacteriophages (phages)–a diverse group of bacterial viruses that infect bacteria. Phage were previously regarded as bystanders that only impacted immunity indirectly via effects on the mammalian microbiome. However, it has become clear that phages also impact immunity directly, in ways that are typically anti-inflammatory. Phages can modulate innate immunity via phagocytosis and cytokine responses, but also impact adaptive immunity via effects on antibody production and effector polarization. Phages may thereby have profound effects on the outcome of bacterial infections by modulating the immune response. In this review we highlight the diverse ways in which phages interact with human cells. We present a computational model for predicting these complex and dynamic interactions. These models predict that the phageome may play important roles in shaping mammalian-bacterial interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage; immunology; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; human host; phage-human host interaction bacteriophage; immunology; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; human host; phage-human host interaction
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Van Belleghem, J.D.; Dąbrowska, K.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Barr, J.J.; Bollyky, P.L. Interactions between Bacteriophage, Bacteria, and the Mammalian Immune System. Viruses 2019, 11, 10.

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