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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090472

Identification of the Potential Virulence Factors and RNA Silencing Suppressors of Mulberry Mosaic Dwarf-Associated Geminivirus

1
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Agro-Biotechnology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Virus Interactions)
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Abstract

Plant viruses encode virulence factors or RNA silencing suppressors to reprogram plant cellular processes or to fine-tune host RNA silencing-mediated defense responses. In a previous study, Mulberry mosaic dwarf-associated virus (MMDaV), a novel, highly divergent geminivirus, has been identified from a Chinese mulberry tree showing mosaic and dwarfing symptoms, but the functions of its encoded proteins are unknown. In this study, all seven proteins encoded by MMDaV were screened for potential virulence and RNA silencing suppressor activities. We found that V2, RepA, and Rep affect the pathogenicity of a heterologous potato virus X. We showed that V2 could inhibit local RNA silencing and long-distance movement of the RNA silencing signal, but not short-range spread of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) silencing signal in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c plants. In addition, V2 localized to both subnuclear foci and the cytoplasm. Deletion mutagenesis of V2 showed that the basic motif from amino acids 61 to 76 was crucial for V2 to form subnuclear foci and for suppression of RNA silencing. Although the V2 protein encoded by begomoviruses or a curtovirus has been shown to have silencing suppressor activity, this is the first identification of an RNA silencing suppressor from a woody plant-infecting geminivirus. View Full-Text
Keywords: MMDaV; RNA silencing; suppressor; virulence factor MMDaV; RNA silencing; suppressor; virulence factor
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Yang, X.; Ren, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, D.; Zhang, F.; Li, D.; Li, S.; Zhou, X. Identification of the Potential Virulence Factors and RNA Silencing Suppressors of Mulberry Mosaic Dwarf-Associated Geminivirus. Viruses 2018, 10, 472.

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