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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090471

Antiviral Activity of Fermented Ginseng Extracts against a Broad Range of Influenza Viruses

1
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
3
Metabolab, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea
4
Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 130-705, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Ginseng products used as herb nutritional supplements are orally consumed and fermented to ginsenoside compounds by the intestinal microbes. In this study, we investigated antiviral protective effects of fermented ginseng extracts against different strains of influenza viruses in genetically diverse mouse models. Intranasal coinoculation of mice with fermented ginseng extract and influenza virus improved survival rates and conferred protection against H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and H7N9 strains, with the efficacy dependent on the dose of ginseng samples. Antiviral protection by fermented ginseng extract was observed in different genetic backgrounds of mice and in the deficient conditions of key adaptive immune components (CD4, CD8, B cell, MHCII). The mice that survived primary virus inoculation with fermented ginseng extract developed immunity against the secondary infection with homologous and heterosubtypic viruses. In vitro cell culture experiments showed moderate virus neutralizing activity by fermented ginseng extract, probably by inhibiting hemagglutination and neuraminidase activity. This study suggests that fermented ginseng extracts might provide a means to treat influenza disease regardless of virus strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented ginseng; influenza virus; antiviral activity; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase fermented ginseng; influenza virus; antiviral activity; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase
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Wang, Y.; Jung, Y.-J.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, Y.-J.; Zhang, Z.; Kang, H.-S.; Wang, B.-Z.; Quan, F.-S.; Kang, S.-M. Antiviral Activity of Fermented Ginseng Extracts against a Broad Range of Influenza Viruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 471.

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