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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080410

Phaeoviral Infections Are Present in Macrocystis, Ecklonia and Undaria (Laminariales) and Are Influenced by Wave Exposure in Ectocarpales

1
Marine Biological Association of the UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, Devon PL1 2PB, UK
2
School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK
3
Bezhin Rosko, 40 Rue des Pêcheurs, F-29250 Santec, France
4
Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centre of Advanced Studies, University of Playa Ancha, Viña del Mar 581782, Chile
5
Lab of Plant Growth Analysis, Ghent University Global Campus, 119, Songdomunwha-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21985, Korea
6
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Private bag X2, Vlaeberg 8018, South Africa
7
Department of Biological Sciences and Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
8
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6LA, UK
9
Veterinary Population Medicine, 225 Veterinary Medical Center, 1365 Gortner Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Abstract

Two sister orders of the brown macroalgae (class Phaeophyceae), the morphologically complex Laminariales (commonly referred to as kelp) and the morphologically simple Ectocarpales are natural hosts for the dsDNA phaeoviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) that persist as proviruses in the genomes of their hosts. We have previously shown that the major capsid protein (MCP) and DNA polymerase concatenated gene phylogeny splits phaeoviruses into two subgroups, A and B (both infecting Ectocarpales), while MCP-based phylogeny suggests that the kelp phaeoviruses form a distinct third subgroup C. Here we used MCP to better understand the host range of phaeoviruses by screening a further 96 and 909 samples representing 11 and 3 species of kelp and Ectocarpales, respectively. Sporophyte kelp samples were collected from their various natural coastal habitats spanning five continents: Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that while most of the kelp phaeoviruses, including one from Macrocystispyrifera, belonged to the previously designated subgroup C, new lineages of Phaeovirus in 3 kelp species, Ecklonia maxima, Ecklonia radiata, Undaria pinnatifida, grouped instead with subgroup A. In addition, we observed a prevalence of 26% and 63% in kelp and Ectocarpales, respectively. Although not common, multiple phaeoviral infections per individual were observed, with the Ectocarpales having both intra- and inter-subgroup phaeoviral infections. Only intra-subgroup phaeoviral infections were observed in kelp. Furthermore, prevalence of phaeoviral infections within the Ectocarpales is also linked to their exposure to waves. We conclude that phaeoviral infection is a widely occurring phenomenon in both lineages, and that phaeoviruses have diversified with their hosts at least since the divergence of the Laminariales and Ectocarpales. View Full-Text
Keywords: phaeovirus; Phycodnaviridae; Ectocarpales; kelp; NCLDV; prevalence; phylogeny; MCP; latency phaeovirus; Phycodnaviridae; Ectocarpales; kelp; NCLDV; prevalence; phylogeny; MCP; latency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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McKeown, D.A.; Schroeder, J.L.; Stevens, K.; Peters, A.F.; Sáez, C.A.; Park, J.; Rothman, M.D.; Bolton, J.J.; Brown, M.T.; Schroeder, D.C. Phaeoviral Infections Are Present in Macrocystis, Ecklonia and Undaria (Laminariales) and Are Influenced by Wave Exposure in Ectocarpales. Viruses 2018, 10, 410.

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