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Suppression of NF-κB Activity: A Viral Immune Evasion Mechanism

by Liyao Deng 1,2,3, Qiurui Zeng 4, Mingshu Wang 1,2,3,†, Anchun Cheng 1,2,3,*, Renyong Jia 1,2,3, Shun Chen 1,2,3, Dekang Zhu 1,2,3, Mafeng Liu 1,2,3, Qiao Yang 1,2,3, Ying Wu 1,2,3, Xinxin Zhao 1,2,3, Shaqiu Zhang 1,2,3, Yunya Liu 1,2,3, Yanling Yu 1,2,3, Ling Zhang 1,2,3 and Xiaoyue Chen 2,3
1
Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
3
Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
4
School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The author has contributed equally as co-first authors of this work.
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080409
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor that induces the expression of antiviral genes and viral genes. NF-κB activation needs the activation of NF-κB upstream molecules, which include receptors, adaptor proteins, NF-κB (IκB) kinases (IKKs), IκBα, and NF-κB dimer p50/p65. To survive, viruses have evolved the capacity to utilize various strategies that inhibit NF-κB activity, including targeting receptors, adaptor proteins, IKKs, IκBα, and p50/p65. To inhibit NF-κB activation, viruses encode several specific NF-κB inhibitors, including NS3/4, 3C and 3C-like proteases, viral deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), phosphodegron-like (PDL) motifs, viral protein phosphatase (PPase)-binding proteins, and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Finally, we briefly describe the immune evasion mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by inhibiting NF-κB activity in productive and latent infections. This paper reviews a viral mechanism of immune evasion that involves the suppression of NF-κB activation to provide new insights into and references for the control and prevention of viral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: NF-κB; viruses; NF-κB inhibitors; HIV-1; immune evasion NF-κB; viruses; NF-κB inhibitors; HIV-1; immune evasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, L.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, M.; Cheng, A.; Jia, R.; Chen, S.; Zhu, D.; Liu, M.; Yang, Q.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Chen, X. Suppression of NF-κB Activity: A Viral Immune Evasion Mechanism. Viruses 2018, 10, 409.

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