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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080409

Suppression of NF-κB Activity: A Viral Immune Evasion Mechanism

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Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
3
Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
4
School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China
The author has contributed equally as co-first authors of this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [762 KB, uploaded 6 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor that induces the expression of antiviral genes and viral genes. NF-κB activation needs the activation of NF-κB upstream molecules, which include receptors, adaptor proteins, NF-κB (IκB) kinases (IKKs), IκBα, and NF-κB dimer p50/p65. To survive, viruses have evolved the capacity to utilize various strategies that inhibit NF-κB activity, including targeting receptors, adaptor proteins, IKKs, IκBα, and p50/p65. To inhibit NF-κB activation, viruses encode several specific NF-κB inhibitors, including NS3/4, 3C and 3C-like proteases, viral deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), phosphodegron-like (PDL) motifs, viral protein phosphatase (PPase)-binding proteins, and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Finally, we briefly describe the immune evasion mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by inhibiting NF-κB activity in productive and latent infections. This paper reviews a viral mechanism of immune evasion that involves the suppression of NF-κB activation to provide new insights into and references for the control and prevention of viral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: NF-κB; viruses; NF-κB inhibitors; HIV-1; immune evasion NF-κB; viruses; NF-κB inhibitors; HIV-1; immune evasion
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Deng, L.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, M.; Cheng, A.; Jia, R.; Chen, S.; Zhu, D.; Liu, M.; Yang, Q.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Chen, X. Suppression of NF-κB Activity: A Viral Immune Evasion Mechanism. Viruses 2018, 10, 409.

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