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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070342

High Risk Blueberry Viruses by Region in North America; Implications for Certification, Nurseries, and Fruit Production

1
United States Department of Agriculture‚ÄďAgricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research Unit, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology and Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas System, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
Full-Text   |   PDF [506 KB, uploaded 26 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

There is limited information on the distribution of blueberry viruses in the U.S. or around the world other than where the viruses were first discovered and characterized. A survey for blueberry viruses was carried out in the U.S. in 2015–2017. Most blueberry viruses have been characterized to the point that sensitive diagnostic assays have been developed. These assays are based on ELISA or variations of PCR, which were employed here to determine the presence of blueberry viruses in major blueberry production and nursery areas of the U.S. The viruses included in this study were: blueberry fruit drop (BFDaV), blueberry latent (BlLV), blueberry leaf mottle (BLMoV), blueberry mosaic (BlMaV), blueberry red ringspot (BRRV), blueberry scorch (BlScV), blueberry shock (BlShV), blueberry shoestring (BlSSV), blueberry virus A (BVA), peach rosette mosaic (PRMV), tobacco ringspot (TRSV), and tomato ringspot (ToRSV). In the Pacific Northwest BlShV was the most widespread virus, with BlScV and ToRSV detected in a limited number of fields in Oregon and Washington, but BlScV was widespread in British Columbia. In the upper midwest, the nematode-borne (ToRSV, TRSV), aphid-transmitted (BlSSV and BVA) and pollen-borne (BLMoV) viruses were most widespread. In the northeast, TRSV, ToRSV, and BlScV, were detected most frequently. In the southeast, BRRV and BNRBV were the most widespread viruses. BlLV, a cryptic virus with no known symptoms or effect on plant growth or yield was present in all regions. There are other viruses present at low levels in each of the areas, but with the lower incidence they pose minimal threat to nursery systems or fruit production. These results indicate that there are hotspots for individual virus groups that normally coincide with the presence of the vectors. The information presented highlights the high risk viruses for nursery and fruit production each pose a different challenge for control. View Full-Text
Keywords: blueberry fruit drop associated virus; blueberry latent virus; blueberry leaf mottle virus; blueberry mosaic associated virus; blueberry red ringspot virus; blueberry scorch virus; blueberry shock virus; blueberry shoestring virus; blueberry virus A; peach rosette mosaic virus; tobacco ringspot virus; tomato ringspot virus; detection; blueberry certification blueberry fruit drop associated virus; blueberry latent virus; blueberry leaf mottle virus; blueberry mosaic associated virus; blueberry red ringspot virus; blueberry scorch virus; blueberry shock virus; blueberry shoestring virus; blueberry virus A; peach rosette mosaic virus; tobacco ringspot virus; tomato ringspot virus; detection; blueberry certification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Martin, R.R.; Tzanetakis, I.E. High Risk Blueberry Viruses by Region in North America; Implications for Certification, Nurseries, and Fruit Production. Viruses 2018, 10, 342.

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