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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050277

Lessons Learned in Developing a Commercial FIV Vaccine: The Immunity Required for an Effective HIV-1 Vaccine

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110880, Gainesville, FL 32611-0880, USA
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Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
Full-Text   |   PDF [308 KB, uploaded 22 May 2018]

Abstract

The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine called Fel-O-Vax® FIV is the first commercial FIV vaccine released worldwide for the use in domestic cats against global FIV subtypes (A–E). This vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype (A plus D) FIV-infected cells, whereas its prototype vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype whole viruses. Both vaccines in experimental trials conferred moderate-to-substantial protection against heterologous strains from homologous and heterologous subtypes. Importantly, a recent case-control field study of Fel-O-Vax-vaccinated cats with outdoor access and ≥3 years of annual vaccine boost, resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 56% in Australia where subtype-A viruses prevail. Remarkably, this protection rate is far better than the protection rate of 31.2% observed in the best HIV-1 vaccine (RV144) trial. Current review describes the findings from the commercial and prototype vaccine trials and compares their immune correlates of protection. The studies described in this review demonstrate the overarching importance of ant-FIV T-cell immunity more than anti-FIV antibody immunity in affording protection. Thus, future efforts in developing the next generation FIV vaccine and the first effective HIV-1 vaccine should consider incorporating highly conserved protective T-cell epitopes together with the conserved protective B-cell epitopes, but without inducing adverse factors that eliminate efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: FIV; FIV vaccine; T cell epitopes; polyfunctional T cells; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; neutralizing antibody FIV; FIV vaccine; T cell epitopes; polyfunctional T cells; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; neutralizing antibody
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sahay, B.; Yamamoto, J.K. Lessons Learned in Developing a Commercial FIV Vaccine: The Immunity Required for an Effective HIV-1 Vaccine. Viruses 2018, 10, 277.

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