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Of Viroids and Prions
Open AccessReview

Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of Pospiviroids

1
Institute of Vegetable and Floriculture Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0852, Japan
2
Central Region Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan
3
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120706
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis. In addition, some of Pospiviroidae are also horizontally transmitted by pollen. Tomato planta macho viroid in pollen infects to the ovary from pollen tube during pollen tube elongation and eventually causes systemic infection, resulting in the establishment of horizontal transmission. Furthermore, fertilization is not required to accomplish the horizontal transmission. In this review, we will overview the recent research progress in vertical and horizontal transmission of viroids, mainly by focusing on histopathological studies, and also discuss the impact of seed transmission on viroid dissemination and seed health. View Full-Text
Keywords: embryo; ovary; ovule; pollen; potato spindle tuber viroid; seed transmission; stigma; style; tomato planta macho viroid embryo; ovary; ovule; pollen; potato spindle tuber viroid; seed transmission; stigma; style; tomato planta macho viroid
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Matsushita, Y.; Yanagisawa, H.; Sano, T. Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of Pospiviroids. Viruses 2018, 10, 706.

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