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The Westward Journey of Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus

1
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 761, Iran
2
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Godoy Cruz 2290, CABA, Argentina
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Instituto de Patología Vegetal–Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias–Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (IPAVE-CIAP-INTA), 5020 Córdoba, Argentina
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French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD), BGPI, Montpellier 34398, France
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BGPI, INRA, CIRAD, SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier 34398, France
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International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Beqa’a Valley, Zahle 1801, Lebanon
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Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens 118 55, Votanikos, Greece
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Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia
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Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Málaga (IHSM-CSIC-UMA), Avenida Dr. Wienberg s/n, 29750 Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga 29001, Spain
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General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), 561-0817 Al-Ghab, Hama, Syria
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National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE), 19381 Al-Baqah, Jordan
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Virology Laboratory, ICARDA, Ariana 2049, Tunisia
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The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Center for Evolution and Medicine and School of Life sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5001, USA
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Structural Biology Research Unit, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, Western Cape, South Africa
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South African MRC Bioinformatics Unit, South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Western Cape, South Africa
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Computational Biology Group, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, Western Cape, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100542
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV), which causes severe disease symptoms in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and is transmitted by the widespread aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch, has been found throughout the Mediterranean basin as well as in Iran and Argentina. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of ALCV and attempt to determine whether the recent discovery and widespread detection of ALCV is attributable either to past diagnostic biases or to the emergence and global spread of the virus over the past few years. One hundred and twenty ALCV complete genome sequences recovered from ten countries were analyzed and four ALCV genotypes (ALCV-A, ALCV-B, ALCV-C, and ALCV-D) were clearly distinguished. We further confirm that ALCV isolates are highly recombinogenic and that recombination has been a major determinant in the origins of the various genotypes. Collectively, the sequence data support the hypothesis that, of all the analyzed locations, ALCV likely emerged and diversified in the Middle East before spreading to the western Mediterranean basin and Argentina. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alfalfa leaf curl virus; geminivirus; alfalfa; evolutionary history Alfalfa leaf curl virus; geminivirus; alfalfa; evolutionary history
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Davoodi, Z.; Bejerman, N.; Richet, C.; Filloux, D.; Kumari, S.G.; Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Galzi, S.; Julian, C.; Samarfard, S.; Trucco, V.; Giolitti, F.; Fiallo-Olivé, E.; Navas-Castillo, J.; Asaad, N.; Moukahel, A.R.; Hijazi, J.; Mghandef, S.; Heydarnejad, J.; Massumi, H.; Varsani, A.; Dietzgen, R.G.; Harkins, G.W.; Martin, D.P.; Roumagnac, P. The Westward Journey of Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus. Viruses 2018, 10, 542.

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