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Open AccessArticle

Recombination Located over 2A-2B Junction Ribosome Frameshifting Region of Saffold Cardiovirus

1
Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
2
Enteric Disease Laboratory, Virology Center, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil
3
LIM/46, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
4
Secretary of Health of Tocantins, Tocantins 77453-000, Brazil
5
Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Tocantins, Tocantins 77001-090, Brazil
6
Public Health Laboratory of Tocantins State (LACEN/TO), Tocantins 77016-330, Brazil
7
Postgraduate Program in Health Science, Faculty of Medicine of ABC, Santo André 09060-870, Brazil
8
Retrovirology Laboratory, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo 04023-062, Brazil
9
Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
10
Department Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
11
Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Pará 66075-000, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors jointly supervised this work.
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100520
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Here we report the nearly full-length genome of a recombinant Saffold virus strain (SAFV-BR-193) isolated from a child with acute gastroenteritis. Evolutionary analysis performed using all available near-full length Saffold picornavirus genomes showed that the breakpoint found in the Brazilian strain (SAFV-BR-193) is indeed a recombination hotspot. Notably, this hotspot is located just one nucleotide after the ribosomal frameshift GGUUUUU motif in the SAFV genome. Empirical studies will be necessary to determine if this motif also affects the binding affinity of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) and therefore increases the changes of RdRp swap between molecules during the synthesis of viral genomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: saffold virus; cardiovirus; virome; picornavirus; ribosomal frameshifting; GGUUUUU motif; RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase saffold virus; cardiovirus; virome; picornavirus; ribosomal frameshifting; GGUUUUU motif; RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase
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Da Costa, A.C.; Luchs, A.; Milagres, F.A.P.; Komninakis, S.V.; Gill, D.E.; Lobato, M.C.A.B.S.; Brustulin, R.; Das Chagas, R.T.; Abrão, M.D.F.N.S.; Soares, C.V.D.A.; Deng, X.; Sabino, E.C.; Delwart, E.; Leal, É. Recombination Located over 2A-2B Junction Ribosome Frameshifting Region of Saffold Cardiovirus. Viruses 2018, 10, 520.

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