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Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1089-1109;

Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges

Myrdalskogen 95, N-5117 Ulset, Norway
Influenza Centre, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Laboratory Building, 5th Floor, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2009 / Revised: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Full-Text   |   PDF [161 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; H5N1; H1N1; pandemic; vaccine; haemagglutinin (HA); neuraminidase (NA) influenza; H5N1; H1N1; pandemic; vaccine; haemagglutinin (HA); neuraminidase (NA)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Haaheim, L.R.; Madhun, A.S.; Cox, R. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges. Viruses 2009, 1, 1089-1109.

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