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Forests 2017, 8(3), 81;

Genetic Diversity of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) in the Eastern Italian Alps

Dipartimento di Scienze AgroAlimentari, Ambientali e Animali, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, University of Trieste, Via Licio Giorgieri 5, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Science, University of Florence, P. le delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Division of Florence, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy A. Martin
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Juglans regia L. is distributed primarily across temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. During the last glaciation, the species survived in refugial areas that in Europe included the Balkans and the Italian peninsula, two areas joined by a corridor represented by the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, where two germplasm reservoirs met and likely intercrossed during re-colonization after the last glaciation. In this work, two hundred and fifteen wild accessions native to the area were sampled, georeferenced, and genotyped with 20 microsatellite loci selected from the literature. The local accessions of this study displayed moderate genetic diversity with 80 alleles identified. The number of alleles/loci was 4.0 (4.7 alleles for the genomic SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats) and 2.7 alleles per EST (Expressed Sequence Tag)-derived SSR, on average). An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the molecular diversity was between individuals (nearly 98% of variation explained). The model-based clustering algorithms implemented either in STRUCTURE and GENELAND software revealed two clusters: The first one encompassed most of the samples and showed a great genetic admixture throughout the five sampling areas defined on the base of orographic characteristics of the region. The second cluster represented a small island with three samples traced back to an introduction from Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. View Full-Text
Keywords: walnut germplasm; Juglans spp.; germplasm; genetic diversity; SSR genotyping; spatial structure genetics walnut germplasm; Juglans spp.; germplasm; genetic diversity; SSR genotyping; spatial structure genetics

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Vischi, M.; Chiabà, C.; Raranciuc, S.; Poggetti, L.; Messina, R.; Ermacora, P.; Cipriani, G.; Paffetti, D.; Vettori, C.; Testolin, R. Genetic Diversity of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) in the Eastern Italian Alps. Forests 2017, 8, 81.

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